Main page content

Climate, Peace and Security Assessment: Mali


Located in West Africa in the Sahel, Mali is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change on the planet and is experiencing both rising insecurity and significant climate variability. Over the past decades, the country has experienced increased variability and unpredictability of rainfall, rising temperatures and violent conflicts.

Climate change impacts already put additional pressure on natural resource-based livelihoods, limiting the ability of people to adapt. Political and security developments, poor governance and marginalisation drive insecurity and reduce state presence and service provision even further. Simultaneously, recession, inequality, insecurity, corruption, and social exclusion make livelihoods difficult to sustain.

Adding to that, Mali is experiencing major environmental pressures from human activity, most notably a 15% loss in tree cover due to deforestation between 2000 and 2020. In consequence, women and girls are forced to walk further than ever to access clean water, the lack of forest coverage is exposing them to armed groups, with increased gender-based violence and assaults being reported.

Download the report | Executive summary


Egalement disponible en français:


Mali: How is climate change driving conflict and insecurity?

In Mali, the climate crisis and insecurity are interacting in a variety of ways. From people’s attempts at adapting to a changing climate to the effects on minority groups, Chitra Nagarajan explains the four key ways that a warming planet is interacting with an already complex security scenario.


Mali: Climate and security beyond the standard narrative

While in Mali, Chitra Nagarajan talked to people about how they perceive the impacts of climate change in their lives. The answers brought forward a narrative that goes beyond what we normally hear about the West African country: desertification leading to resource scarcity.