Conflicts in the Sahel region are mounting. The Inner Niger Delta, located in the Sahelian zone of central Mali at the crossroads between lusher south Mali and Saharan northern Mali, is one of the areas most affected by conflict. Livelihoods in the Inner Niger Delta are determined by the rhythms of the seasonal rains, the tide of the Niger River and the rotations of herd movements. It is within this context that competition over access to water and pasture plays out and has given rise to conflicts. This Water, Peace and Security (WPS) Partnership report aims to inform global decision-makers and practitioners about the links between water, peace and security in the Inner Niger Delta.