An increasing number of experts today agree that a correlation exists between water insecurity and political instability. Climate change further exacerbates water insecurity and can therefore have a multiplier impact on political instability. An area of real concern and particular relevance is the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region, the most water scarce region in the world. It comes as no surprise that water issues are typically regarded in MENA countries as a matter of national security. The region hosts 5% of the world’s population but has only less than 1% of the world’s renewable water supply, with a total water demand exceeding naturally available water supplies by almost 20%. In addition the region registers high fertility rates and suffers from inefficient water usage and mismanagement, antiquated water infrastructures and networks, lack of legal, political, and economic frameworks for the management of transboundary water resources, and pollution. Climate change has already led to increasing pressure on existing natural water resources in the region.
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