Over the past 15 years, climate-related risks to peace and stability have risen fast up the European agenda. This report explores the extent to which this policy focus has influenced the international agenda and the degree to which it has translated into improved European responses to the causes and consequences of insecurity in fragile states, proposing three areas of action. Europe is a champion for greater action on both climate change and the pursuit of international peace and security. While there has been siginificant progress, there still remain gaps. The EU has the ability to combine a wide variety of economic and political policy tools, which affords the bloc a scope for action that is unparalleled in most other regional organisations. Against this backdrop climate insecurity as an issue has gained traction in headquarters, but this has yet to filter down in a systematic manner to operations planning and actual missions in the field.