Natural resources play an important role for growth and development in Latin America and the Caribbean. The region is home to extensive reserves of metals and minerals, including those that will be critical in the transition to greener and more sustainable energy sources. Oil and gas reserves are also significant. Moreover, production is likely to increase with several large mining projects being developed in some countries, and unconventional hydrocarbon resource discoveries and production techniques, such as deepwater drilling and shale, are also expected to further increase the oil and gas potential. This report provides a comprehensive analysis of responsible business conduct (RBC) issues, initiatives and policies in the extractive sector in the region and encourages countries and actors in the region to use RBC as a tool for inclusive and sustainable development.