For the past four decades, Afghanistan has suffered from the devastating impacts of constant armed conflict. Conflicts have increased Afghanistan’s already high vulnerability to climate change, the impacts of which may, in turn, help to create the conditions for continued violence. This risk brief from the Climate Security Expert Network outlines some of the ways in which climate change threatens long-term peace and stability in Afghanistan: Climate shocks and climate ‘headwinds’ could worsen poverty, weaken governance and contribute to instability. While the Afghan Government has taken measures to address climate change both at the national and international levels, this risk brief also presents a number of entry points that would specifically address climate security concerns. For a quick overview of Afghanistan's climate-fragility risks, take a look at the two-pager factsheet.